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Published software should be free software. To make it free software, you need to release it under a free software license. We normally use the GNU General Public License (GNU GPL), but occasionally we use other free software licenses. We use only licenses that are compatible with the GNU GPL for GNU software.
Documentation for free software should be free documentation , so that people can redistribute it and improve it along with the software it describes. To make it free documentation, you need to release it under a free documentation license. We normally use the GNU Free Documentation License (GNU FDL), but occasionally we use other free documentation licenses.
The GNU General Public License is often called the GNU GPL for short; it is used by most GNU programs, and by more than half of all Free Software packages.
The GNU Lesser General Public License is used by a few (but not all) GNU libraries. This license was formerly called the Library GPL, but we changed the name, because the old name encouraged people to use this license more often than it really ought to be used.
The GNU Free Documentation License is a form of copyleft intended for use on a manual, textbook or other document to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifications, either commercially or noncommercially.
Legally speaking, the original (English) version of the GPL is what specified the actual distribution terms for GNU programs. But to help people better understand the licenses, we give permission to publish translations into other languages if the translations provided that they follow our regulations for unofficial translations.
The standard copyright notice for GNU webpages reads: Verbatim copying and distribution of this entire article is permitted in any medium, provided this notice is preserved. Please note the following commentary by Eben Moglen:
"Our intention in using the phrase `verbatim copying in any medium' is not to require retention of page headings and footers or other formatting features. Retention of weblinks in both hyperlinked and non-hyperlinked media (as notes or some other form of printed URL in non-HTML media) is required."
Copyleft is a general method for making a program free software and requiring all modified and extended versions of the program to be free software as well.
The simplest way to make a program free is to put it in the public domain (18k characters), uncopyrighted. This allows people to share the program and their improvements, if they are so minded. But it also allows uncooperative people to convert the program into proprietary software (18k characters). They can make changes, many or few, and distribute the result as a proprietary product. People who receive the program in that modified form do not have the freedom that the original author gave them; the middleman has stripped it away.
In the GNU project, our aim is to give all users the freedom to redistribute and change GNU software. If middlemen could strip off the freedom, we might have many users, but those users would not have freedom. So instead of putting GNU software in the public domain, we ``copyleft'' it. Copyleft says that anyone who redistributes the software, with or without changes, must pass along the freedom to further copy and change it. Copyleft guarantees that every user has freedom.
Copyleft also provides an incentive for other programmers to add to free software. Important free programs such as the GNU C++ compiler exist only because of this.
Copyleft also helps programmers who want to contribute improvements to free software get permission to do that. These programmers often work for companies or universities that would do almost anything to get more money. A programmer may want to contribute her changes to the community, but her employer may want to turn the changes into a proprietary software product.
When we explain to the employer that it is illegal to distribute the improved version except as free software, the employer usually decides to release it as free software rather than throw it away.
To copyleft a program, we first state that it is copyrighted; then we add distribution terms, which are a legal instrument that gives everyone the rights to use, modify, and redistribute the program's code or any program derived from it but only if the distribution terms are unchanged. Thus, the code and the freedoms become legally inseparable.
Proprietary software developers use copyright to take away the users' freedom; we use copyright to guarantee their freedom. That's why we reverse the name, changing ``copyright'' into ``copyleft.''
Copyleft is a general concept; there are many ways to fill in the details. In the GNU Project, the specific distribution terms that we use are contained in the GNU General Public License, the GNU Lesser General Public License and the GNU Free Documentation License.
The appropriate license is included in many manuals and in each GNU source code distribution.
The GNU GPL is designed so that you can easily apply it to your own program if you are the copyright holder. You don't have to modify the GNU GPL to do this, just add notices to your program which refer properly to the GNU GPL. Please note that you must use the entire text of the GPL, if you use it. It is an integral whole, and partial copies are not permitted. (Likewise for the LGPL and the FDL.)
Using the same distribution terms for many different programs makes it easy to copy code between various different programs. Since they all have the same distribution terms, there is no need to think about whether the terms are compatible. The Lesser GPL includes a provision that lets you alter the distribution terms to the ordinary GPL, so that you can copy code into another program covered by the GPL.
We believe that published software and documentation should be free software and free documentation. We recommend making all sorts of educational and reference works free also, using free documentation licenses such as the GNU Free Documentation License (GNU FDL).
For other kinds of works, we recommend you consider the licenses proposed by Creative Commons.
However, when using them, we strongly urge you to reject the option to reference the license with a link to a URL. You cannot take for granted that the same URL will still function ten years from now; fifty years from now, URLs as they exist today may be entirely obsolete. If the URL does not function, that would disconnect your work from its license; then it would effectively lose its copying permissions, since people won't be able to tell what is permitted. We therefore urge you to include a copy of the license with the work, for every work, all the time.
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Verbatim copying and distribution of this entire article is permitted in any medium, provided this notice is preserved.
Updated: $Date: 2003/05/26 18:54:44 $ $Author: bkuhn $